Table 2 Weighted average (WA) Pearson’s correlation and standard deviation (SD) over 20 replicates of a fivefold (CV1) random cross-validation (prediction of new lines not observed in any year) for eight models (M1: environment + pedigree; M2: environment + pedigree + pedigree × environment; M3: environment + marker; M4: environment + marker + marker × environment; M5: environment + pedigree + marker; M6: environment + pedigree + marker + pedigree × environment + marker × environment; M7: environment + pedigree + marker + pedigree × marker; M8: environment + pedigree + marker + pedigree × marker + pedigree × marker × environment) for grain yield (GY), days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), plant height (PH), and lodging (LD) for a wheat breeding pipeline comprised of 35,403 lines observed in four periods/years (13-14, 14-15, 15-16 and 16-17). Lines were observed only once across all periods
TraitYearM1M2M3M4M5M6M7M8
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
Yield13-140.6450.0030.6470.0040.5230.0020.5800.0010.6850.0030.6940.0020.7040.0020.7060.002
14-150.4820.0020.4920.0020.4110.0030.4830.0050.5400.0020.5600.0020.5610.0030.5700.004
15-160.5900.0020.6120.0040.4790.0020.5280.0020.6340.0050.6530.0020.6450.0020.6570.002
16-170.5440.0030.5650.0020.4300.0010.4820.0030.5770.0020.5970.0020.5900.0030.5990.004
W. Mean0.5620.0030.5770.0030.4580.0020.5150.0030.6060.0030.6230.0020.6220.0020.6300.003
Heading13-140.5920.0040.5940.0040.5640.0010.6100.0010.6660.0030.6750.0040.6900.0040.6960.004
14-150.5270.0030.5330.0030.4820.0030.5400.0030.6190.0030.6340.0010.6560.0030.6630.002
15-160.5370.0030.5700.0030.5370.0010.5880.0030.6360.0010.6670.0020.6550.0010.6680.002
16-170.5460.0030.5630.0040.5490.0010.5830.0020.6480.0030.6650.0030.6700.0050.6790.004
W. Mean0.5490.0030.5640.0040.5320.0010.5790.0020.6410.0030.6600.0020.6670.0030.6750.003
Maturity13-140.5880.0050.5900.0030.5430.0010.5900.0030.6660.0040.6750.0040.6890.0030.6960.009
14-150.5230.0040.5280.0030.4960.0020.5520.0020.6230.0030.6350.0030.6510.0020.6560.004
15-160.5970.0030.6310.0020.5340.0020.5780.0030.6630.0020.6970.0010.6760.0010.6960.003
16-170.5350.0020.5670.0020.5410.0020.5830.0020.6280.0010.6580.0020.6480.0030.6660.006
W. Mean0.5600.0030.5790.0030.5280.0020.5750.0030.6440.0020.6660.0020.6650.0020.6780.005
Height13-140.5200.0040.5240.0040.4400.0040.4830.0030.5670.0010.5770.0020.5890.0020.5960.004
14-150.4620.0010.4660.0020.4340.0020.4760.0030.5180.0030.5260.0030.5330.0020.5390.004
15-160.5250.0020.5490.0010.4590.0030.5020.0040.5830.0020.6040.0030.5970.0020.6100.002
16-170.5130.0020.5380.0030.4410.0010.5180.0010.5670.0010.5960.0010.5810.0020.5930.003
W. Mean0.5050.0020.5200.0020.4440.0020.4960.0030.5590.0020.5770.0020.5750.0020.5850.003
Lodging13-140.5620.0050.5640.0060.4990.0040.5410.0050.6160.0030.6240.0050.6300.0050.6310.005
14-150.5030.0060.5070.0060.4640.0010.4800.0020.5680.0050.5750.0050.5860.0050.5920.005
15-160.5590.0050.5790.0040.3580.0030.4220.0060.5660.0020.5950.0030.5800.0040.5950.004
16-17
W. Mean0.5410.0050.5500.0050.4360.0020.4770.0040.5820.0030.5970.0040.5970.0050.6050.004