Table 3 Identity of tested genes and encoded proteins that affect excretory canal morphology
Protein Class
GeneCloneShort Description of Known or Inferred Protein FunctionReferences
Transcriptional and post-transcriptional factors
ceh-6*K02B12.1homeobox transcription factor(Burglin and Ruvkun 2001; Armstrong and Chamberlin 2010)
ceh-37*C37E2.5Otx homeobox transcription factor(Lanjuin et al. 2003; Hench et al. 2015)
egal-1C10G6.1Egalitarian exonuclease, regulates dynein(Kipreos and Pagano 2000)
fbxa-183F44E7.6F-box protein, possible effects on RNA(Fridolfsson et al. 2010)
exc-14K11D12.9RING finger, possible E3 ubiquitin ligase(Kaneko et al. 2016)
mxt-1Y18D10A.8translation regulation(Peter et al. 2015)
Cytoskeletal proteins and regulators
cyk-1*F11H8.4Diaphanous formin(Severson et al. 2002; Shaye and Greenwald 2016)
Transporters, channels, and receptors
inx-12*ZK770.3innexin gap junction protein(Altun et al. 2009; Hall 2017)
inx-13*Y8G1A.2innexin gap junction protein(Altun et al. 2009; Hall 2017)
vha-5*F35H10.4vacuolar ATPase component(Oka et al. 2001; Liégeois et al. 2006; Hahn-Windgassen and Van Gilst 2009)
best-3C01B12.3bestrophin chloride channel(Strauß et al. 2014)
exc-11F41E7.1Na+/H+ solute carrier (SLC9 family)(Fuster and Alexander 2014)
Vesicle movement regulators
gck-3*Y59A8B.23germinal center WNK kinase protein(Falin et al. 2009; Gagnon and Delpire 2012)
mop-25.2*Y53C12A.4scaffolding for endocytic recycling(Lant et al. 2018; Sun et al. 2018)
Enzymatic activities
exc-10T25C8.1sedoheptulose kinase(Phornphutkul et al. 2001; Wamelink et al. 2008)
exc-15T08H10.1aldo-keto reductase(Barski et al. 2008)
Unknown function
exc-12T05D4.3Nematode-only transmembrane protein
exc-13C03G6.5Nematode conserved-domain protein
suex-1F12A10.7Caenorhabditis-only glycine-rich protein
suex-2C53B4.1solute carrier (SLC22 family)(Cram et al. 2006; Nigam 2018)
  • Protein class shows known function, or function of closest homologs, of products of genes where knockouts affected morphology on C. elegans excretory canals. Thick line separates knockdowns that caused defects in canal morphology, and knockdowns that suppressed effects of exc-5 mutation. Thin lines separate genes by class of protein encoded. Asterisks indicate genes previously demonstrated to have effects on the excretory canals.