Table 1 Phenotypic data of P. axillaris, P. exserta, and their recombinant inbred lines (RILs) for seven plant and flower traits when grown in central Florida, U.S.A. in 2014 and 2015, and the variance components and broad-sense heritability estimates for the seven traits
TraitYearPhenotypic dataVariance component estimates (%)Broad-sense heritabilityb
ParentsMid parent valueRILs
P. axillarisP. exsertaT-testaMean ± SDRange (minimum to maximum)VgVeVgeVbε
Mean ± SD
PH (m)20140.51 ± 0.040.43 ± 0.06ns0.470.39 ± 0.120.12 - 0.7660.670.486.610.0532.190.61
20150.52 ± 0.070.55 ± 0.11ns0.530.41 ± 0.120.10 - 0.77
PS (m)20141.10 ± 0.100.81 ± 0.09*0.950.74 ± 0.180.24 - 1.2052.931.7218.64026.710.53
20151.09 ± 0.080.76 ± 0.07*0.920.78 ± 0.260.11 - 1.41
PZ (m3)20140.15 ± 0.040.07 ± 0.03*0.110.19 ± 0.110.02 - 0.5446.815.4719.12028.600.47
20150.16 ± 0.050.09 ± 0.02*0.130.24 ± 0.170.01 - 0.81
FD (cm)20145.23 ± 0.054.12 ± 0.23*4.684.62 ± 0.592.55 - 6.3050.226.0511.102.0730.570.50
20155.12 ± 0.073.85 ± 0.13*4.494.42 ± 0.533.10 - 5.97
FL (cm)20144.98 ± 0.184.16 ± 0.19*4.574.68 ± 0.532.70 - 5.9562.450.6613.270.3624.660.62
20155.06 ± 0.144.23 ± 0.15*4.654.61 ± 0.483.00 - 5.93
FC (no.)2014211.00 ± 52.05194.33 ± 37.16ns202.50165.41 ± 78.5212.00 - 458.0036.01033.950.1429.900.36
2015213.67 ± 26.35276.00 ± 44.23ns244.50164.78 ± 92.7010.47 - 528.00
DTA (day)201475.33 ± 1.5176.86 ± 2.68ns76.0173.92 ± 6.9457.00 - 105.0020.49059.490.1419.880.20
201576.00 ± 3.0081.63 ± 2.20*78.8174.66 ± 10.0951.00 - 97.00
  • PH, plant height; PS, plant spread; PZ, plant size; FD, flower diameter; FL, flower length; FC, flower counts; DTA, days to anthesis.

  • Vg, Ve, Vge, Vb, and ε are variance components from genotype, environment, genotype by environment interaction, field block, and random error, respectively.

  • a Student’s t-tests were performed to compare means of traits between P. axillaris and P. exserta in 2014 and 2015. * significant at P < 0.05; ns not significant at P < 0.05.

  • b Broad-sense heritability, the proportion of Vg in the total phenotypic variance.