Table 1 Components of the 8 models included in this study. Each of these models is fitted with the linear kernel (GB) and the Gaussian kernel (GK)
ModelGeneral meanFixed environmental effectMain genetic effect of line across environmentsGenotype × environment interaction (G×E)Random intercept of the linesUnstructured G×ERandom residual
MMEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Imageε (Embedded Image
MMlEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image (Embedded Imageε (Embedded Image
MDsEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Imagege (Embedded Image)ε (Embedded Image
MDslEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Imagege (Embedded Image)Embedded Image (Embedded Imageε (Embedded Image
MDeEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image (Embedded Imagefor each environment)ε (Embedded Image
MDelEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image (Embedded Imagefor each environment)Embedded Image (Embedded Imageε (Embedded Image
MUCEmbedded ImageEmbedded Imageu (Embedded Imageε (Embedded Image
MUCfEmbedded ImageEmbedded Imageu (Embedded Imagef (Embedded Imageε (Embedded Image