Table 1 Summary of the simulation results when detecting the true number of subpopulations K (uneven sample sizes)
MethodaScenario 1Scenario 2Scenario 3
CONE (Mod)10 92% (0.28) 9 1110 82% (0.49) 9 1210 82% (0.42) 9 11
CONE (StARS)10 52% (1.00) 7 1110 82% (0.42) 9 1010 62% (0.71) 8 11
sNMF (CE)10 48% (1.17) 9 1311 44% (1.56) 10 1412 18% (2.77) 9 15
CONE (subsample)9 26% (1.57) 7 1110 82% (0.55) 8 1011 46% (1.38) 10 13
  • Island model (scenario 1), hierarchical island model (scenario 2), and hierarchical stepping-stone model (scenario 3). Mod, modularity; CE, cross-entropy.

  • a We have reported the median, percentage of the number of correctly inferred subpopulations, an error measure (RMSE), and minimum and maximum (in boldface) values of the number of inferred subpopulations. We used both the modularity approach and StARS to choose a proper value for the tuning parameter λ. We have also reported the number of inferred clusters identified with the StARS subsampling (subsample).