Table 3 Summary of QTL for the awn and hull color traits identified in the BC1F1 (EM93-1//EM93-1/LD) and BC2F1 populations
QTLChrPeak (cM)aLRbR2bEffectcMeasurementdPopulation
 qAn4-14RM185 (−1)36.80.1222.2% Awned seedsBC1F1
RM185 (3)33.40.2439.0% Awned seedsBC2F1 (9)
RM185 (0) length
RM5979 (1)26.50.1126.1% Awned seedsBC2F1 (139)
RM5979 (1) length
 qAn88RM23292 (0)70.10.2529.9% Awned seedsBC1F1
RM23292 (−17)125.30.5974.5% Awned seedsBC2F1 (9)
RM23292 (−19) length
RM23292 (−8)57.90.3347.9% Awned seedsBC2F1 (139)
RM23292 (−1) length
Hull color
 qHC22RM526 (3)13.50.05−4.2L* (Blackness)BC2F1 (9)
16.60.08−0.7a* (Redness)
 qHC44RM252 (0)126.70.540.7Visual scoreBC1F1
RM252 (0)39.10.17−8.8L* (Blackness)BC2F1 (9)
RM252 (0)59.30.33−1.3a* (Redness)
RM252 (0)26.40.15−18L* (Blackness)BC2F1 (139)
RM252 (0)34.00.17−1.3a* (Redness)
RM252 (0)37.00.20−6.2b* (Yellowness)
 qHC77RM5481 (1)* (Redness)
  • QTL, quantitative trait loci; Chr, chromosome; LR, likelihood ratio.

  • a Number in the parentheses is the genetic distance of the peak located above (−) or below the marker on the Chr or Chr segment in Figure 1, Figure 3A, or Figure 4A.

  • b LR and proportion of the variance explained by the QTL (R2).

  • c Difference between the heterozygous and homozygous genotypes in the trait value.

  • d The trait awn was measured by the percentage of seeds with awn and the mean awn length for seeds from a plant; and the hull color was measured by visual scores (dark vs. straw) for the BC1F1 population and by reflection spectrum readings for darkness (L*), red redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) for the BC2F1 population.