Table 3 Summary of results for candidate circadian phosphatases
CandidateRNAi PhenotypeGenetic Reagents TestedValidationSpatial ExpressionaClock-Related Expression
mtsbLongAdditional RNAi, overexpressionYesBrain, eye, tubule, carcass, ovary, heart, spermatheca, gut, fat body, headCLK target and cyclingc
Pp2A-29BbLongP element insertsNoHead, brain, tubule, ovary, testis, fat body, gut, salivary glandCLK target and noncyclingc
IPP-2ARNo reagentsTestis
CG17746ARP element insertsNoTubule, ovaryCLK target and noncyclingc; cycling mRNA in large PDF neuronsd
Gbs-70ELongNo reagentsHead, carcass, ovary, heart, fat body, eye, crop, salivary gland, spermathecaCLK target and cyclingc; cycling mRNA in large PDF neuronsd
Ppm1ARNo reagentsTestisCycling mRNA in large PDF neuronsd
I-2ARP element insert, overexpressionNoHead, tubule, carcass, ovary, testis, spermatheca, ganglion
CG7115LongP element insertNoCarcass, ovarymRNA enriched in s-LNvsd
Cep97AROverexpression strainsNoTestis
PpD6LongP element insertNo
Ptpmeg2LongP element inserts, overexpressionNoHeadCycling mRNA in large PDF neuronsd
Ptp69DLongLoss-of-function mutants, Dominant negative strainNoeOvarymRNA enriched in s-LNvs; cycling mRNA in small and large PDF neuronsd
MKP-4LongP element insertNoCycling mRNA in large PDF neuronsd
Pp1a-96AfLongP element inserts, Overexpression, CRISPR heterozygous mutantsNoHead, carcass, ovary, testis, crop, fat body, gut, salivary gland, spermatheca, accessory glandmRNA enriched in s-LNvsd
CG10417LongOverexpressionYesCarcass, ovary
LarARDeficiency over point mutant heterozygoteYes
Pp1-Y2LongNo reagents
CanA-14FgARKnockout, expression of constitutively active formNohHead, carcass, ovary
CG3530LongAdditional RNAiNoBrain, head, ganglionmRNA enriched in s-LNvsd
  • Bold denotes the remaining candidate clock protein phosphatases. RNAi, RNA interference; CLK, CLOCK; AR, arrhythmic; mRNA, messenger RNA; PDF, pigment dispersing factor; CRISPR, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

  • a High/very high expression level in adult fly tissues based on Celniker et al. (2009) and Chintapalli et al. (2007).

  • b Clock-related based on Sathyanarayanan et al. (2004).

  • c Direct CLK binding target and cycling or noncycling mRNA expression based on Abruzzi et al. (2011).

  • d Differential mRNA expression in pacemaker neurons based on Kula-Eversole et al. (2010).

  • e All genetic reagents used to verify the RNAi phenotype that produced long period rhythms were due to perSLIH.

  • f Clock-related based on Fang et al. (2007).

  • g Sleep-related based on previously analyzed for circadian phenotype Nakai et al. (2011).

  • h Knockout allele had a long period rhythm which was lost upon isogenization, but constitutively active form produces a long period rhythm upon overexpression.