Table 4 Accounting for population structure in Mexican and Iranian landraces
TraitModelaTRN20-TST8010% Diversity Core20% Diversity Core10% Prediction Core20% Prediction Core
Mexican collection
 DTHM1:E + A0.002 (0.009)−0.0050.004−0.005−0.001
M2:E + A + G0.508 (0.005)0.4610.4890.4770.503
M3:E + A + G + G × E0.599 (0.004)0.5590.5800.5650.597
M4:E + A + G + G × E + A × E0.600 (0.004)0.5550.5790.5680.597
 DTMM1:E + A0.001 (0.000)−0.0080.0030.0020.003
M2:E + A + G0.527 (0.005)0.4820.5110.4840.513
M3:E + A + G + G × E0.596 (0.004)0.5580.5840.5530.586
M4:E + A + G + G × E + A × E0.596 (0.004)0.5580.5810.5580.584
Iranian collection
 DTHM1:E + A0.001 (0.023)0.010−0.0140.005−0.003
M2:E + A + G0.403 (0.035)0.3440.3890.3890.397
M3:E + A + G + G × E0.552 (0.033)0.5040.5510.5110.544
M4:E + A + G + G × E + A × E0.551 (0.034)0.4960.5450.5140.548
 DTMM1:E + A0.000 (0.021)0.0130.003−0.0090.004
M2:E + A + G0.450 (0.052)0.3710.4500.4000.419
M3:E + A + G + G × E0.551 (0.029)0.4930.5510.5020.519
M4:E + A + G + G × E + A × E0.548 (0.026)0.4850.5420.5060.525
  • Mean correlation across 30 random partitions between observed and predicted values of four models for two traits, days to heading (DTH) and days to maturity (DTM), across two environments (their standard deviation, SD), for 20% training (TRN20) and 80% testing (TST80) sets of the total number of accessions in the Mexican and Iranian collections for four models (M1–M4). Correlations between observed and predictive values for 10% and 20% diversity and prediction core sets.

  • a Models: E, Environment; A, accession; G, genomic relationship; A × E, accession × environment interaction; G × E, genomic × environment interaction.