Table 3 Accounting for population structure in Mexican and Iranian landraces
Estimated Variance ComponentPercentage of Within-Environment Variance
EAGA × EG × ERes.AGA × EG × ERes.
Mexican landraces
Days to Heading
 M1:E + A1.1370.0250.03839.4360.56
 M2:E + A + G0.8140.0040.0150.0348.2327.9463.81
 M3:E + A + G + G × E0.6900.0060.0130.0130.01713.3426.4826.6033.56
 M4:E + A + G + G × E + A × E0.6350.0060.0140.0050.0120.01212.0628.1510.8023.8525.12
Days to Maturity
 M1:E + A1.0750.1240.12050.8349.16
 M2:E + A + G0.7470.0140.0780.1166.8437.3855.76
 M3:E + A + G + G × E0.6220.0370.0660.0410.05218.8133.6520.9626.56
 M4:E + A + G + G × E + A × E0.5660.0350.0690.0150.0380.03918.0435.017.7219.5819.63
Iranian landraces
Days to Heading
 M1:E + A1.1220.0460.13924.9275.08
 M2:E + A + G0.8160.0120.0420.127.1323.9268.95
 M3:E + A + G + G × E0.7020.0140.0310.0670.0449.0619.9442.7728.23
 M4:E + A + G + G × E + A × E0.5950.0130.0340.0160.0590.0368.0221.4310.0437.5622.95
Days to Maturity
 M1:E + A1.1030.030.04142.2657.74
 M2:E + A + G0.8530.0080.0210.03712.1132.0555.84
 M3:E + A + G + G × E0.7330.0080.0190.0180.01513.6231.6530.0224.71
 M4:E + A + G + G × E + A × E0.6370.0070.0190.0060.0150.01311.9632.269.5424.7221.51
  • Estimated variance components for four models (M1–M4) and percentage of within-environment variance accounted for by each random effect of the corresponding model using the full data for two traits, days to heading (DTH) and days to maturity (DTM). E, environment; A, accession; G, genomic (marker); A × E, accession × environment; G × E, genomic × environment; Res. residual.