Table 1 ZFN-, TALEN-, and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutagenesis after mRNA microinjection in the monarch butterfly
ZFNs/TALENs/CRISPRsNumber of Injected EggsHatching Rate, %Live Larvae, n (%)Somatic Mutants, n (%)Germline Mutation Rate, % (Mut crossed, n)Reference
cry2 ZFNs11944.845 (3.8)4 (8.9)44.5 (2)Merlin et al. 2013
cry2 TALENs862217 (19.8)11 (64.7)4.1 (4)This study
cry2 CRISPR (2 sgRNAs)8821.613 (14.8)8 (61.5)100 (2)This study
clock TALENs9021.117 (18.9)17 (100)52.4 (4)This study
clock CRISPR (1 sgRNA)9339.819 (20.4)11 (57.9)12.2 (2)This study
  • The percentage of live larvae corresponds to the number of larvae that survived to adulthood relative to the number of injected eggs. The percentage of somatic mutants corresponds to the number of live larvae that presented any degree of somatic mosaicism. The germline mutation rate corresponds to the percentage of progeny carrying a mutated allele from the total of progeny tested. ZFNs, zinc-finger nucleases; TALENs, transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases; CRISPR, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.