Table 1 Drosophilids in which parthenogenetic development has been screened or in which parthenogenetically reproducing strains were successfully created by laboratory selection (shaded)
SubgenusSpecies GroupSpecies (Reference)No. Eggs ExaminedEmbryos/Larvae ObservedNo. Adults
SophophoraMelanogasterD. melanogaster (S54)532,197
D. melanogaster (F86)Selected
D. simulans (S54)13,8721/0
D. ananassae (F72)Selected
D. pallidosa (F 9)Selected
D. pallidosa-like (M&T99)Selected
ObscuraD. affinis (S54)19,0594/01
WillistoniD. willistoni (W64)NA
D. paulistorum (W64)NAx
D. equinoxlais W64NA
D. tropicalis (W64NA
D. insularis W64)NAx
D. cubana (W64)NA
D. mangabeirai (C,W&H57)Obligate
DrosophilaCardiniD. cardini (S54)52,8503/0
D. polymorpha (S 54)37,629109/0Selected
D. neocardini (S54)11,4391/0
D. cardinoides (S54)30,7773/0
D. acutilabella (S54)16,46311/0
D. campestris (S54)23,68214/0
D. parthenogenetica (S53)Selected
FunebrisD. funebris (S54)43,1983/0
D. macrospina (S54)26550/0
MelanicaD. melanica (S54)51991/1
D. nigromelanica (S54)0/0
RobustaD. robusta (C61)10,585,00014
D. robusta (S54)10,7062/0
ImmigransD. immigrans (S54)81531/0
D. albomicans (O&F95)Selected
VirilisD. americana (S54)18,1650/0
QuinariaD. quinaria (S54)11,8686/0
D. transversa (S54)11,6162/0
TestaceaD. putrida (S54)84314/0
RepletaD. hydei (T79)381,7153/32
D. hydei (S54)63,02718/1
D. hydei (H62)214,640X/82
D. mercatorum (C67)Selected
D. mercatorum (T79)611,0869/97
D. longicornis (H62)33,060X/0
D. aldrichi (H62)00/0
D. hamatofila (H62)145,220X/3
D. hydeoides (H62)15,520X/1
D. meridiana (H62)37,580X/0
D. m. rioensis (H62)8620X/1
D. mulleri (H62)89,140X/41
D. spenceri (H62)12,400X/0
HirtodrosophilaD. duncani (S54)16,0441/0
ScaptodrosophilaD. victoria (S54)12920/0
Scaptomyzagraminum (S54)43144/0
Adusta (S54)23400/0
ZaprionusZ. vittiger (S54)10,1670/0
  • Number of individuals observed to undergo embryonic or larval development is given either as the number reported or an “x,” indicating that it had been observed but not reported as a number. C61, Carson 1961; CW&H 75, Carson et al. 1957; F72, Futch 1972; F79, Futch 1979; F86, Fuyama 1986a; H62, Henslee 1974; M&T99, Matsuda and Tobari 1999; NA, not available; O&F95, Ohsako and Fuyama 1995; T79, Templeton 1979; S53, Stalker 1952; S54, Stalker 1954; W64, Winge 1965.