Table 1The algorithm of OCMA calculates the right outcome. Eigenvectors (or singular vectors) are compared using Infinite norm , Taxicab norm , and Euclidean norm . We use and to denote the vectors calculated by OCMA and and to denote the vectors calculated by MATLAB (version 2012b). The comparison for eigen-decomposition is presented in the upper table, and the comparison for singular-value decomposition is presented in the lower one. In the upper table, N denotes the number of individuals. In lower table, N = 1,000,000, and M denotes the number of genetic markers. The configuration of the personal computer: Intel Core i7-6700 CPU (4 cores), Memory = 24GB. Disk = Samsung SSD 850 EVO 250GB. The operating system is Windows 7. Time is measured by wall-clock (instead of CPU time)